Tula Arms Plant (or Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod)(Rus"Тульский оружейный завод") is a Russian weapons manufacturer founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia in 1712 in Tula, Russia as Tula Arsenal. Throughout its history, it has produced weapons for whomever controlled the Russian state. Its name was changed from Tula Arsenal to Tula Arms Plant during the Soviet era.
History of the plantEdit
Historically, Tula’s Arms plant produced big assortment of arms and sports weapons for the Russian Army. Originally, the plant was created to defend citizens of Tula from the nomad’s invasions, because they did not have enough weapons, which were produced in Moscow. So by decree of Petr I, had started a construction of the plant. The Factory was equipped with progressive at that time, equipment such as: water machines, "trochanteric" machines for drilling shafts, grapes, hammers, machines for "scrubbing" - exterior and interior finishes trunks. Firstly in the production of mechanisms had started to use the most advanced technologies, which vastly increased the quality of weapons in Russia. In the 18th century this plant was recognized as etalon of Russian Arms Production. In 1720, for the weaponry of Russian army, a plant was produced 22 thousand light infantry and dragoon rifles, pistols flintlock, and from the 1749 has been started mass production of cold weapons- knives, sabers, broadswords, swords.
The flourishing of Tula Arms Plant had in the second half of 18th century, when in that time, rapidly increased a demand on the artistically decorated weapons. A unique, remarkable for its elegance invention Tula’s plant - "Diamond Line" on the metal, and many other secrets of decoration on metal and wood are rooted precisely in this era. By the end of 18th century, becoming known names such fine gunsmiths as Ivan Pushkin, Ivan Lialin - creator of the double-barreled breech-loading flintlock, Ivan Pauline - the designer who created one of the first examples of a multiply-charged weapons shop.
Tula Arms Plant in the 19th centuryEdit
Reconstructed in the 19th century Tula Arms Factory became one of the best arms production companies in Europe. In 1879 the plant started production of the famous Berdan rifle with an improved bolt action. Workshop was organized by a model where created their own models of small arms and hunting weapons. Increased production of various products: Single-and double-barrel muzzle-loading rifles, breech-loading center-fire rifle, shotgun and combined. In the production of barrels used Damascus steel technology, developed with the assistance of a talented designer Mosin. Within a few years, Mosin (Sergei Ivanovich Mosin) engaged in designing various systems magazine rifles. In 1891, as a result of testing complex engineering systems Mosin and Belgian manufacturer and designer Alexander Nagant created a rifle, which was adopted by Russian army under the name of "three-line rifle of 1891."
In 1902 the factory was organized fully mechanized mass production of hunting rifles (first hammerless shotguns model "B", and then Ivashentsev’s trigger gun system). In 1910 started the production of a magnificent sample of firearms – first model of Maxim machine gun, in this model has been achieved a complete interchangeability of parts, and this system was unique, no one weapon plant had such a system.
In the 20 years, the plant has developed and started production of a hunting rifle model "P" and rifled carbine NK-8,2 designed by Kochetov, small-caliber rifles TOZ-1, TOZ-2, singly rifle sight with the sector TOZ-7, TOZ-8 and shooting sports TOZ-10.
In 1927 has been established design office in order to unify all the forces of the design at the plant, the result of which was the development of aircraft machine guns such as PV-1, ShKAS.
In 1939 F.V. Tokarev (rus. Фёдор Васильевич Токарев) created self-loading rifle SVT-38 - a sniper rifle, which occupies a place of honor on along with the best semi-automatic rifle of World War II model M1 "Garand."
From 1927 to 1938 the plant was designed and built the country's first spinning machines, created a new base of textile machinery.
Between 1932 and 1939 the plant mastered the production of milling machines, and started to massively producing three models - the versatile, horizontal and vertical milling machines.
1927–1939 years has been regulated the production aircraft machine guns "ShKAS" and UB, B-2 guns and semi-automatic rifles FV Tokarev SVT-38, the most high-velocity during the Second World War.
Importance During WWIIEdit
Tula was strategically important to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Significant ore deposits were situated relatively close to it and it had access to ample transportation routes like the Upa River and many rail lines coming into and out of the city.
During World War II, the German army invaded Russia as part of Operation Barbarossa. By December 5, the German 2nd Panzer Division had advanced to within a few kilometers of Tula, forcing the Soviets to evacuate Tula Arms Plant. As a result, far fewer weapons were produced there than at other Soviet factories such as Izhevsk Mechanical Plant. Consequently, Tula weapons of World War II are considered more valuable by collectors.
In 1941-1945, working under the slogan "Everything for the front, everything for victory", Tula gunsmiths produced SVT-38/40 self-loading rifles, aircraft gun "Shvakov" Nagan revolver and pistol Tokarev.
Factory activity in the post-war periodEdit
The post-war period - the time of fruitful work in a different kinds of sporting and hunting weapons. In this years were established models of guns such as a double-barreled hammerless T03-25, a double trigger "BM", small-caliber rifle TOZ-8M, TOZ-12, TOZ-16, TOZ-18.
At the same time, the plant has produced 7.62 mm carbine Simonov SKS.
In 1965 constructors N. I. Korovyakov and V.P. Ochneva created a reliable double-barreled shotgun with vertical shafts TOZ-34.
During a 1961–1982 years. The plant has received an order for production of the world-famous Kalashnikov assault rifle (mastered the six versions of the machine), anti-tank guided missiles- "Baby", "Viola", "competition" grenade "Bonfire."
The plant has covered a long and glorious path.
From the early 1980s, the factory continued to produce the AK-47 as well as AK-74, and also manufactured the VSS Vintorez, AS Val, OTs-14 Groza, and TOZ rifle weapons designed by TsNIITochMash. The plant also produces large quantities of small arms ammunition for the military as well as for commercial sale.
The plant is notable for its production of the unique Saritch 308 "battle rifle" recently featured in Western video game life in the form of the "SMR" of Call of Duty: Black Ops II of Treyarch/Activision, a rival for the most powerful primary weapon in the game. The internal game coding indicates directly and literally the Saritch 308 was its inspirational model.