The strategic benefit of the house was its position on a cross-street giving the defenders a 1 km line of sight to the north, south and west. After several days, reinforcements and resupply arrived for Pavlov's men, bringing the unit up to a 25-man understrength platoon and equipping the defenders with machine guns, anit-tank rifles, and mortars. In keeping with Stalin's Order No. 227 - "not one step back", Sgt. Pavlov was ordered to fortify the building and defend it to the last bullet and the last man. Taking this advice to heart, Pavlov ordered the building to be surrounded with four layers of barbed wire and minefields, and set up machine-gun posts in every available window facing the square. In the early stages of the defense, Pavlov discovered that a PTRS-41 anti-tank rifle he had mounted on the roof was particularly effective when used to ambush unsuspecting German tanks; once the tanks had approached to within 25 meters of the building, their thin turret-roof armor became exposed to AT rifle fire from above, but they were unable to elevate their weapons enough to retaliate. Pavlov had reportedly destroyed nearly a dozen tanks personally using this tactic.The house was a four-story building in the center of Stalingrad, built parallel to the embankment of the river Volga and overseeing the "9th January Square", a large square named for Bloody Sunday. In September 1942, the house was attacked by German soldiers, and a platoon of the Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Divison was ordered to seize and defend it. The platoon was led by Junior Sgt. Yakov Pavlov, a low-level noncommissioned officer serving as acting platoon commander since the unit's lieutenant and senior sergeants had all been wounded or killed. The attack on the building was successful, although the fighting was brutal, with only four men in the 30-man platoon surviving the assault.
For better internal communication, they breached the walls in the basement and upper floors, and dug a communications trench to Soviet positions outside. Supplies were brought in via the trench or by boats crossing the river, defying German air raids and shelling. Nevertheless, food and especially water was in short supply. Lacking beds, the soldiers tried to sleep on insulation wool torn off pipes but were subjected to harassing fire every night in order to try and break their resistance.
The Germans attacked the building several times a day. Each time German infantry or tanks tried to cross the square and to close in on the house, Pavlov's men laid down a withering barrage of machine gun and AT rifle fire from the basement, the windows and from the roof top, devastating the German attackers and forcing them to retreat. By mid-November, Pavlov's men reportedly had to use lulls in the fighting to run out and kick over the heaped piles of German corpses so they could not be used as cover for the next round of attackers.
Eventually the defenders, as well as the Soviet civilians who kept living in the basement all that time, held out during intensive fighting from 27 September - 25 November 1942, when they were relieved by the counter-attacking Soviet forces.
Symbolic meaningEditPavlov's House in its current state. The inscription on the memorial reads: "In this building were united heroic feats of warfare and labor. We will defend / rebuild you, dear Stalingrad!" Pavlov's House became a symbol of the incredibly stubborn and dogged resistance of the Russian forces during the Battle of Stalingrad, which eventually ended in a decisive victory for the Soviet forces after months of massive casualties on both sides. The inability of the German blitzkrieg to make headway against such grinding and self-sacrificial attrition warfare made the failure to capture Pavlov's House (despite numerous attempts) stand out as a symbol of resistance against a vastly superior force. It is reported that the building on the corner of "9th January Square" was marked as a fortress on captured German maps.
Vasily Chuikov, commanding general of the Soviet forces in Stalingrad, later bragged that the Germans lost more men trying to take Pavlov's house than they did taking Paris, a boast which was unlikely but not far from the truth if the Soviet era casualty figures are to be believed
Pavlov's "House" was rebuilt after the battle and is still used as an apartment building today. There is an attached memorial constructed from bricks picked up after the battle on the East side facing the Volga.
Pavlov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for his actions.
A report on Pavlov's House was presented in the 2009 Russian TV documentary "Legendary Redoubt" (Легендарный редут) on Russian Channel One. According to this, Pavlov undoubtedly fought heroically at the house, but the defense was in fact led by Lieutenant Ivan F. Afanasiev. (Иван Ф. Афанасьев). This report does not discount Pavlov's efforts, which led to his earning the Hero of the Soviet Union and those soldiers who took part in the defense earning numerous decorations of their own.
- In the video game Call of Duty there is a level in which the player, as a conscripted Russian peasant, must participate in capturing and defending this structure from multiple waves of German soldiers and armor until Soviet reinforcements arrive. Your squad leader in this mission is named Sgt. Pavlov, based on the real-life Yakov Pavlov. There is also a multiplayer map of Pavlov's House (mp_pavlov).
- In early versions of the Red Orchestra modification for the game U'nreal Tournament 2004 there was a level that recreated the fighting between the Soviet and German forces for the control of the building. The 2011 release Red Orchestra 2: Heroes of Stalingrad also includes Pavlov's house as a combat scenario.
- "Pavlov's House" is a structure in the first mission of Close Combat III: The Russian Front, with it starting in German control. However, this is in a battle that takes place in Ukraine during Operation Barbarossa, and does not represent the actual Pavlov's House (the game also has other structures and scenery played for laughs, like crop circles on a field).
- Forgotten Hope, a modification for the computer game Battlefield 1942, has Pavlov's house as a map in multiplayer. The map has the house in the center with the Germans surrounding it from 3 sides. The Soviets are on the 4th side. The map makes heavy use of the PPSh-41 Sub-machine-gun. It is a popular map for multiplayer.